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(The original site is now commemorated as Charles Towne Landing.) Not only was this location more defensible, but it also offered access to a fine natural harbor which accommodated trade with the West Indies.
The new town was the 5th-largest in North America by 1690.
Population growth in the interior of South Carolina influenced the removal of the state government to Columbia in 1788, but the port city remained among the ten largest cities in the United States through the 1840 census.
The only major American city to have a majority-enslaved population, antebellum Charleston was controlled by an oligarchy of white planters and merchants who successfully forced the federal government to revise its 18 tariffs during the Nullification Crisis and launched the Civil War by seizing the Arsenal, Castle Pinckney, and Fort Sumter from their federal garrisons.
When the city of Charleston was formed, it was defined by the limits of the Parish of St. These settlers established Charles Town at Albemarle Point on the west bank of the Ashley River a few miles northwest of the present-day city center.
Charles Town became English-speaking America's first comprehensively planned town with governance, settlement, and development were to follow a visionary plan known as the Grand Model prepared for the Lords Proprietors by John Locke.
On December 7, 1710, the Lords Proprietors decided to separate the Province of North Carolina from Charles Town's government, although they continued to own and control both regions.The Westo had made enemies of nearly every other tribe in the region, however, and the English turned on them in 1679.Destroying them by 1680, the settlers were able to use their improved relations with the Cusabo and other tribes to trade, recapture runaway slaves, and engage in slaving raids of Spanish-allied areas.Known for its rich history, well-preserved architecture, distinguished restaurants, and mannerly people, Charleston is a popular tourist destination and has received a large number of accolades, including "America's Most Friendly [City]" by Travel Leisure in 2011 and in 20 by Condé Nast Traveler, but has since greatly expanded, crossing the Ashley River and encompassing James Island and some of Johns Island.
The city limits also have expanded across the Cooper River, encompassing Daniel Island and the Cainhoy area.The traditional parish system persisted until the Reconstruction Era, when counties were imposed. It took seven years before the group arranged for settlement expeditions.